Gut Microbiome in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Mechanism and Implications for Clinical Intervention
Kuokuo Li , Zhengmao Hu, Jianjun Ou, Kun Xia
Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with an increased prevalence around the world over the past two decades. Remarkably, a large number of individuals with ASD have gastrointestinal disorders. Recent studies demonstrate that the endogenous gut microbiota has a close relationship with ASD according to the analyses of human host intestinal microbial composition and animal model studies. Here, we review the reports of microbial dysbiosis in ASD, and then discuss the recent evidence of biological interactions among microbiota, metabolism, immunity, neurodevelopment, and behaviors. We also describe the role of the gut microbiome in the link between ASD and environmental risk factors. Finally, we suggest adjuvant treatments to consider in attempts to correct autistic behaviors.