An Overview of Genetic and Environmental Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder
J Ou, R Liu, Y Shen, K Xia, J Zhao
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically diagnosed in children in the first few years of life. Genetic studies have demonstrated a moderate to high heritability of ASD, but only a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified. Meanwhile, numerous single de novo rare variants and copy number variations have been detected in patients with ASD, which are likely caused by environmental factors. Here we provide an over-view of genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the risk of ASD and we recommend that further study should be focused on both genes and environmental factors, as well as their interactions with the expectation that epigenetic studies will lead to understanding the link between the environment and risk of ASD.