Review

An Overview of Genetic and Environmental Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Jianjun Ou1, Ruiting Liu2, Yidong Shen1, Kun Xia2, Jingping Zhao1

1Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, the China National Clinical Research Center for Mental Health Disorders, National Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, China

2Center for Medical Genetics and School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

Received October 8, 2018; Accepted December 6, 2018

ABSTRACT

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically diagnosed in children in the first few years of life. Genetic studies have demonstrated a moderate to high heritability of ASD, but only a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified. Meanwhile, numerous single de novo rare variants and copy number variations have been detected in patients with ASD, which are likely caused by environmental factors. Here we provide an overview of genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the risk of ASD and we recommend that further study should be focused on both genes and environmental factors, as well as their interactions with the expectation that epigenetic studies will lead to understanding the link between the environment and risk of ASD.

KEYWORDS

Genetic association;environmental risk factors; autism spectrum disorder

Copyright 2019 by the Global Clinical and Translational Research.

How to cite this article:

Ou J, Liu R, Shen Y, Xia K, Zhao J. An overview on genetic and environmental risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Glob Clin Transl Res. 2019;1(1):37-44. DOI:10.36316/gcatr.01.0005.

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