Social Network and Functional Health Status among the Elderly
Yun Zhang and Hong Zhang
School of Sociology and Anthropology, the Sun Yat-sen University, Haizhu District, Guangzhou, China
Received July 26, 2019; Accepted September 3, 2019
Background: In the absence of adequate public pension benefits, the older people in China have to rely on their social networks for old-age support. However, few empirical studies have been carried out to examine the pattern of social network and their impact on elderly health in China.
Methods: Using the dataset from two waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 2008 and 2014, we examined the characteristics of social network types and their impacts on the health status among the elderly. The dependent variables included the measures of self-rated health (SRH), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive score (MMSE). K-means clustering method was used to construct the social network type, which was the primary factor we were interested in examing for association with functional health status. A random-effect regression model was utilized to control for the clustering effects within the observations over time.
Results: Four types of the social network were derived among the older people, and they were the diverse network (6.65%), family-focused network (32%), children-focused network (29.89%) and restricted network (31.45%). Compared with the restricted network, the diverse network was associated with the best functional health status and self-rated health among the elderly; the family-focused network was also associated with a better score of ADL, IADL, and MMSE but not significantly with SRH score; and the children-focused network was also associated with a better health status of all measures. Furthermore, social support from family members and friends positively influenced the health status of the elderly. In contrast, having social workers available when needed was associated with the reduced ADL, IADL, and SRH scores. This might be due to that those elderly with the worst health status are in a greater need for support from social workers, and hence, the reverse association may occur.
Conclusion: family- and children-focused network were primary types among the older people in China. Consistent with previous studies, while the diverse network was most beneficial for the functional health status in multiple measures, it only accounted for a small proportion; people with the restricted network had the worst health status.
Social network types; functional health status; elderly Chinese
Copyright © 2019 by the author(s). Licensee Global Clinical and Translational Research. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCBY4.0, https://creative-commons.org /licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.
How to cite this article
Zhang Y and Zhang H. Social Network and Functional Health Status among the Elderly. Glob Clin Transl Res. 2019; 1(3): 109-117.doi:10.36316/gcatr.01.0016.
1. Bowling A, Browne P D. Social Networks, Health, and Emotional Well-being Among the Oldest Old in London. Journal of Gerontology, 1991, 46(1): S20-S32.
2. Perkins J M, Subramanian S V, Christakis N A. Social networks and health: A systematic review of socio-centric network studies in low- and middle-income countries. Social Science & Medicine, 2015, 125(1982):60-78.
3. Umberson D, Crosnoe R, Reczek C. Social Relationships and Health Behavior Across the Life Course. Annual Review of Sociology, 2010, 36(1):139-157.
4. Blass DM, Rabins P V. Social network typologies and mortality risk among older people in China, India, and Latin America: A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study. Social Science & Medicine, 2015, 147(3):134-143.
5. Li, T, Yang C Y, Zhang Y. Culture, economic development, social-network type, and mortality: Evidence from Chinese older adults[J]. Social Science & Medicine, 2018, 204:23-30.
6. Antonucci T C, Lansford J E, Akiyama H, et al. Differences Between Men and Women in Social Relations, Resource Deficits, and Depressive Symptomatology During Later Life in Four Nations. Journal of Social Issues, 2002, 58(4):767-783.
7. Litwin, Howard. The association between social network relationships and depressive symptoms among older Americans: what matters most?. International Psychogeriatrics, 2011, 23(06):930-940.
8. Cheng S T, Lee C K L, Chan A C M, et al. Social Network Types and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2009, 64B(6):713-722.
9. Li, T, Zhang Y. Social network types and the health of older adults: Exploring reciprocal associations. Social Science & Medicine, 2015, 130:59-68.
10. Fiori K L, Antonucci T C, Cortina KS. Social network typologies and mental health among older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 2006, 61(61): P25-32.
11. Gu D, General Data Assessment of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2002. In Y. Zeng, D. L. Poston, D.A. Vlosky, and D. Gu (eds.). Healthy Longevity in China: Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Dimensions. 2008, P39-59. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Publisher.
12. Basel AJ, Fa R, and Nandi AK, Integrative Cluster Analysis in Bioinformatics. 2015. P143-146. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons.
13. Park N S, Jang Y, Lee BS, et al. Associations of a social network typology with physical and mental health risks among older adults in South Korea. Aging & Mental Health, 2017:1-8.
14. Fang E F, Scheibyeknudsen M, Jahn H J, et al. A research agenda for aging in China in the 21st century. Ageing Research Reviews, 2015, 24(Pt B):197-205.